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San Gemini Preservation Studies 2018
Paper Media and Restoration Methods (3 units)
Session 2  Program D (July 9- August 3) 4 weeks
Course #: SG 206A  preliminary syllabus
Prof. Konstantinos Choulis
E-mail: kchoulis@otenet.gr

COURSE DESCRIPTION:

This lecture course on the restoration of paper media aims to give an overview of the field, including instruction on the nature and history of paper, the traditional methods of paper making, printing, book binding, the processes of deterioration over time, and the various methods of conservation and restoration of paper, books and artwork on paper. The course corresponds with the workshop course SG206B.

SUMMARY OF LECTURE CONTENT
  • Book and archival materials: their evolution in history
    • Clay, wax, metal, papyrus, animal skins
    • Paper
    • Structure of the book
      • Cover
      • Binding
      • Signature
      • Ruling
      • Writing
      • Ornamentation
    • Archival materials (documents, letters, posters, photographs etc.). Modern materials.
    • Art on paper (prints, aquarelles, drawings, collage, etc.).
    • Other materials besides paper, parchment, inks, seals, stamps, colors and adhesives.
    • Materials used in bookbinding: cardboard, decorated paper, fabrics, leather, strings, natural fibers etc.
  • Deterioration of books
    • Main causes for the deterioration of book materials
    • Terminology of book damage
    • Processes of deterioration
  • The chemistry of paper
    • Cellulose
    • Handmade paper
    • Modern paper
  • Paper restoration
    • Scheduling restoration
    • Process of restoration
      • Equipment
      • Techniques
      • Results
    • Materials used in restoration (paper, cardboard, adhesives), and their characteristics, properties and behavior
    • Observation with microscope and reflected, translucent and grazing light
    • Measuring pH
    • Testing to identify adhesives and additives used in paper during manufacturing
    • Techniques of restoration:
      • Dry cleaning
      • Washing
      • Deacidification
      • Sizing
      • Drying paper
      • Reintegration of tears and missing sections
        • Criteria for the choice of materials and techniques for reintegration
      • Flattening with presses and weights
  • Restoration of book bindings
    • Structure of the binding
    • Terminology of the components
    • History of various typologies of bindings (medieval, renaissance, modern)
    • Common damage in bookbinding
    • Techniques of restoration
    • Binding volumes
    • Disassembling a book
    • Signature
    • Technique for sewing the quires
    • Technique for making the headband
    • Cover in textile or leather
  • Restoration of artwork on paper
    • Print techniques
    • Xylography
    • Etching
    • Lithography
  • Methods to identify etching types
    • Techniques of drawing (charcoal, pencil, ink, etc.)
    • Techniques of tempera
    • Methods of restoring artwork on paper
    • Observation artworks on paper with microscope and reflected, translucent and grazing light
    • Measuring pH
    • Testing to identify adhesives and additives used in paper during manufacturing and mounting artworks
    • Special techniques of restoration:
      • Dry cleaning (with brush, rubber, scalpel)
      • Washing (if necessary, locally by using vacuum table, blotting papers, or using a screen)
      • Deacidification (aerosols)
      • Sizing/consolidation
      • Drying paper
      • Reintegration of tears and missing sections
        • Criteria for the choice of materials and techniques for reintegration. Coloring the paper.
      • Flattening with presses and weights
COURSE OBJECTIVES:

This course is aimed at two types of students: those planning to become restorers and those planning to manage paper-based resources in libraries, archives or museums. For those planning on a career as a restorer, this is a good introduction to the field to be followed up by further education. For those planning to manage paper-based resources, it is a good overview of the field and offers insight and experience on the safe storage and conservation of paper materials.

COURSE STRUCTURE:

Four weeks. Monday to Friday. Theoretical  lectures will be in the morning sessions (SG206A), with  4-hour workshops (SG206B) during the afternoon. The course includes some study visits to local libraries and archives.

ASSIGNMENTS:

Workshop projects, reading assignments.

REQUIREMENTS:

Courses SG206A (theory) and SG206B (workshop) must be taken together.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Dard Hunter, Papermaking, The History and Technique of an Ancient Craft, Dover,  New York, 1978.
2. Bamber Gascoigne, How to Identify Prints, A complete guide to manual and mechanical processes from woodcut to ink-jet, Thames and Hudson, 1998.
3. Bernard C. Middleton, The Restoration of Leather Bindings, Oak Knoll Press – The British Library, 1998

Photo Gallery – Paper Restoration Workshop

Archives Restoration Projects

San Gemini Preservation Studies
International Institute for Restoration and Preservation Studies
www.sangeministudies.org

203 Seventh Ave
Brooklyn, NY 11215, USA
tel. 718 768 3508